Fleming’s left-hand rule is used to find the direction of the force acting on the current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field. A helix is a curved line formed by a point rotating around a center while the center moves up or down the z-axis. Helices are either right or left handed with curled fingers giving the direction of rotation and thumb giving the direction of advance along the z-axis. Lenz’s law of electromagnetic induction is another topic that often seems counterintuitive, because it requiresunderstanding how magnetism and electric fields interact in various situations.

It is often useful to be able to remember which way the field points (the direction a compass needle will right hand grip rule point) when placed near the wire. Unlike most mathematical concepts, the meaning of a right-handed coordinate system cannot be expressed in terms of any mathematical axioms. Rather, the definition depends on chiral phenomena in the physical world, for example the culturally transmitted meaning of right and left hands, a majority human population with dominant right hand, or certain phenomena involving the weak force. Find the direction of the magnetic field if an electron is moving vertically upwards and gets deflected towards the south due to a uniform magnetic field.

Consequently, we can say that the direction of the force acting is towards the north. Using Fleming’s left-hand rule, we can determine the direction of force acting on the proton. When a charged particle, such as a proton or electron, moves it causes a magnetic effect. It is, in fact, the movement of the electrons in the molten iron core that create the Earth’s magnetic fieldclosemagnetic fieldArea surrounding a magnet that can exert a force on magnetic materials.. In vector calculus, it is necessary to relate a normal vector of a surface to the boundary curve of the surface.

If we consider current flow as the movement of positive charge carriers (conventional current) in the aboveimage, we notice that the conventional current is moving up the page. Since a conventional current is composedof positive charges, then the same current-carrying wire can also be described as having a current with negativecharge carriers moving down the page. Although these currents are moving in opposite directions, a singlemagnetic force is observed acting on the wire. Therefore, the force occurs in the same direction whether weconsider the flow of positive or negative charge carriers in the above image. To apply the right hand rule to Lenz’s Law, first determine whether the magnetic field through the loop is increasing ordecreasing. Recall that magnets produce magnetic field lines that move out from the magnetic north pole and in toward themagnetic south pole.

## Tips to remember Fleming’s Left Hand & Right-Hand Rule

We can use the right hand rule to identify the direction of the force acting on thecurrent-carrying wire. In this model, your fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field, your thumb points in the direction of theconventional current running through the wire, and your palm indicates the direction that the wire is being pushed (force). According to Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction, when a conductor moves through a magnetic field, an electric current is induced in it.

## Rotational Direction: Solenoids

Thecross product of vectors a and b, is perpendicular to both a and b and is normal to the plane that contains it. Sincethere are two possible directions for a cross product, the right hand rule should be used to determine the directionof the cross product vector. To understand how Lenz’s Law will affect this system, we need to first determine whether the initial magnetic field isincreasing or decreasing in strength. As the magnetic north pole gets closer to the loop, it causes the existing magneticfield to increase. Since the magnetic field is increasing, the induced current and resulting induced magnetic field willoppose the original magnetic field by reducing it. This means that the primary and secondary magnetic fields will occur inopposite directions.

## Current-Induced Magnetic Force: Current in a Straight Wire

As a result, the right hand rule indicates that the magneticforce is pointing in the left direction. When an electric current passes through a straight wire, it induces a magnetic field. To apply the right hand grip rule,align your thumb with the direction of the conventional current (positive to negative) and your fingers will indicate thedirection of the magnetic lines of flux. When a conventional current moves through a conducting wire,the wire is affected by a magnetic field that pushes it.

## Coordinates

It is important to note that these rules do not determine the magnitude; instead show only the direction of the three parameters (magnetic field, current, force) when the direction of the other two parameters is known. There is another rule called the right-hand grip rule (or corkscrew rule) that is used for magnetic fields and things that rotate. Torque problems are often the most challenging topic for first year physics students.

It reveals a connection between the current and the magnetic field lines in the magnetic field that the current created. Ampère was inspired by fellow physicist Hans Christian Ørsted, who observed that needles swirled when in the proximity of an electric current-carrying wire and concluded that electricity could create magnetic fields. In mathematics and physics, the right-hand rule is a convention and a mnemonic, utilized to define the orientation of axes in three-dimensional space and to determine the direction of the cross product of two vectors, as well as to establish the direction of the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

- Fleming’s right-hand rule is used to determine the direction of the induced current.
- Unlike most mathematical concepts, the meaning of a right-handed coordinate system cannot be expressed in terms of any mathematical axioms.
- When a conventional current moves through a conducting wire,the wire is affected by a magnetic field that pushes it.
- The various right- and left-hand rules arise from the fact that the three axes of three-dimensional space have two possible orientations.
- When the existing magnetic field is decreasing, the induced current and resulting induced magneticfield will oppose the original, decreasing magnetic field by reinforcing it.

If the magnetic field is increasing, then the direction of the induced magnetic field vector will bein the opposite direction. If the magnetic field in the loop is decreasing, then the induced magnetic field vector willoccur in the same direction to replace the original field’s decrease. Next, align your thumb in the direction of theinduced magnetic field and curl your fingers.

If you point your thumb in the direction of current in a wire, the magnetic field that comes up around it is in the direction of your curling fingers. The various right- and left-hand rules arise from the fact that the three axes of three-dimensional space have two possible orientations. If the curl of the fingers represents a movement from the first or x-axis to the second or y-axis, then the third or z-axis can point along either right thumb or left thumb. We can observe that the left-hand rule is applicable to Motors and the right-hand rule to Generators. Fleming’s left-hand rule and Fleming’s right-hand rule are a pair of visual mnemonics (mnemonics are learning techniques or memory aids, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something). In practice, these rules are never used except as a convenient trick to determine the direction of the resultant – either current or thrust.

When the existing magnetic field is decreasing, the induced current and resulting induced magneticfield will oppose the original, decreasing magnetic field by reinforcing it. Thus, the induced magnetic field will have thesame direction as the original magnetic field. When the magnetic flux through a closed loop conductor changes, it induces a current within the loop.

Lenz’s law states that the directionof the current induced in a closed conducting loop by a changing magnetic field (Faraday’s Law) is such that thesecondary magnetic field created by the induced current opposes the initial change in the magnetic field that producedit. To apply the right hand rule to cross products, align your fingers and thumb at right angles. Then, point your indexfinger in the direction of vector a and your middle finger in the direction of vector b. Your right thumb will pointin the direction of the vector product, a x b (vector c).

Fleming’s right-hand rule is used to determine the direction of the induced current. To use the right hand grip rule ina solenoid problem, point your fingers in the direction of the conventional current and wrap your fingers as if theywere around the solenoid. Your thumb will point in the direction of the magnetic field lines inside the solenoid. Notethat the magnetic field lines are in the opposite direction outside the solenoid. A cross product, or vector product, is created when an ordered operation is performed on two vectors, a and b.

While a magnetic field can be induced by a current, a current can also be induced by a magnetic field. We can usethe second right hand rule, sometimes called the right hand grip rule, to determine the direction of the magneticfield created by a current. To use the right hand grip rule, point your right thumb in the direction of the current’sflow and curl your fingers.